Samuel Tardieu @

Factor: a stack-based programming language


As you may already know, I’m a big fan of stack-based languages such as Forth, functional languages such as Haskell and reflexive languages such as Smalltalk. You can imagine how happy I was when I discovered Factor a few days ago: it combines all those aspects.

Today, a friend sent me someone email signature and asked me if I could decipher it:


As any programmer on the Earth would have, I immediately assumed that those were ASCII codes printed in binary format. I had a Factor interactive shell opened in one of my windows, so I cut and pasted the whole string (surrounded by quotes) and entered:

8 group [ bin> ] map >string print

and the cleartext version appeared instantly. All in all, it took me around 20 seconds to uncover the original text using Factor.

How does this work? Factor is a stack-based language, meaning that data are put onto a stack and words (equivalent of functions in other languages) use the data on the stack and put results there. Factor is a (dynamically) typed language: complex data can be pushed onto the stack, while untyped languages such as Forth can only push numbers there.

Writing the string pushes it on the stack. Using

8 group

takes the string on the top of the stack, considers it as a sequence (a succession of characters), group them by eight and returns an array of strings of length 8. At this point, there is only one element on the stack: an array of eight-characters-long strings.


[ bin> ]

pushes another element on the top of the stack: a quotation (the equivalent of a lambda expression in functional languages), which is a block containing code. The bin> word consumes one string from the stack and pushes back a number which is the value represented by the string in binary. For example, the expression

"01101001" bin>

will push the value 105 on the stack, as 01101001 in binary represents 105 in decimal.


takes a sequence and a quotation. It represents the classical map operation in functional languages: it applies the quotation to every element of the sequence and gathers the results in a new sequence. As a consequence, each eight-characters-long string gets transformed into its decimal representation. At the end, we end up with a single element on the stack, which is an array containing all the ASCII codes of the sentence.


transforms a sequence of ASCII codes into the corresponding string. Then


is similar to C’s puts and prints the string on the standard output and adds a newline at the end.

The content of the unencrypted text itself is not important; my point is that Factor is very compact and its stack-oriented nature helps writing concise and clear programs. For example, here is one of the many possible implementations of the reverse functionality: it takes a string from the stack and lets its ASCII representation in binary onto the stack.

[ >bin 8 CHAR: 0 pad-head ] [ append ] map-reduce

I’m sure that you’re thrilled to know that “Hello, world!” encodes as


(edited on 2018-02-13 to use bin> and >bin)

(edited on 2009-06-13 to use pad-head and map-reduce)

(edited on 2016-12-08 to clarify details about print, thanks to Jon Harper)

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